Prodromos Reservoir – Stavroulia Nature Trail

EXCURSIONS / Nature Trails / Troodos / Prodromos Reservoir – Stavroulia Nature Trail
This trail offers superb views towards Morfou Bay and the Troodos mountain range. It passes through very dense pine forest and it offers you additional panoramic images in the east, to the abandoned tunnels of chrome mines.
A few words about our beautiful Troodos
The Troodos mountain complex (general Troodos), is the highest mountain range in Cyprus with peaks reaching an altitude of 1951 meters.  The area near the peak Chionistra is also called Troodos. There the three roads connecting mountain and Nicosia, Limassol and the Baptist encounter. That is where the name comes from (three routes - Troodos). In another aspect, perhaps the name stemmed from the possible initial name "The-sero-Ados" Adonis: ancient Cypriot dialect Ados.
The Troodos massif occupies the central and southwestern part of the island with a ridge that extends from west-northwest to east-southeast. The area covers 2/3 of the island, while the dominant morphological and geological feature of Cyprus. The Troodos Mountain is home to large forest areas and rich flora with a significant number of endemic plants. It also plays an important role in the water economy of the island, and this spring the main rivers, and contributes significantly to the enrichment of aquifers. Due to the natural environment, climate and cultural heritage, Troodos is a major tourists attraction and leisure place.
The Troodos mountain range presents diverse terrain. The center is characterized by gentle slopes and rounded peaks, while the perimeter follows rougher terrain characterized by steep slopes and deep valleys with dense river network. The southwestern outskirts characterized by hills with relatively flat surfaces, which are separated by deep valleys. The Troodos limits are the coast northwest, west and south and the alluvial plain of Mesaoria north and northeast. The major peaks of Troodos is from west to east: the Tripylos (1362m.), The Kykkos (1318m.), The Chionistra or Olympus (1951m.), The Madari (1613m.) Or shoes (1554m.) And Kionia (1423m.).
The Troodos created at the bottom of the Tethys Sea during the upper Cretaceous (before 90 mil. Years) with elevation of the ocean floor subduction boundaries of the African plate under the Eurasian. Followed by elevation and gradual ascent of the mountain from the sea, mainly during the Alpine orogeny during the Oligocene and Miocene. The main geological formation of the mountain range is the ophiolite complex, which is part of the oceanic crust. Lifting and differential erosion has led to the emergence of the full range of the mantle rock on topographic inversion, the plutonic rocks can occur around the peak Chionistra. Here you can find venous, volcanic sediments and chemicals. The Troodos ophiolite complex is considered the most complete and well thought out the world. Besides the ophiolite complex, in the southwestern part of the massif, a particular geological formation is observed, Geotectonic Zone Mamonia. It consists of a series of igneous, sedimentary, and a much smaller proportion of metamorphic rocks, aged from 210 to 95 million years. These rocks are estimated to be entirely alien in relation to the Troodos ophiolite. With their overthrust the Troodos ophiolite complex of created a patchwork of fragmented and disturbed rocks (mélange).
The Troodos ophiolite complex conceals huge mineral wealth. Rich deposits of asbestos, chromite, copper pyrites, as well as gold and silver are scattered in the mountains. The exploitation of copper historically played a key role in the economy and culture of Cyprus. The Cyprus became one of the first centers of intensive exploitation of copper in antiquity, while the Latin name of copper (cuprum) comes from the name of the island (originally aes cuprium - Cypriot copper and later cuprum).

Troodos, like the rest of Cyprus, is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with dry and hot summers and cold and wet winters. Important is the effect of altitude, which causes a drop in temperature and an increase in precipitation. The precursor (altitude 1420 m.), The mean daily temperatures range around 22 ° C in July and around -8 ° C in January. The precipitation in the higher areas exceed 1000 mm. At altitudes above 650 m. Snowfalls occurring for about 2-3.5 evdomades every winter, and at altitudes above 900 2-2.5 months while the top Chionistra (1951 m.) The ground is covered by snow for 5- six months a year. Extreme minimum temperature recorded in Prodromos between 1991 and 2005 was -17,2 ° C and 25 extreme maximum for the same period was 2,4 ° C.
Because of the variety in the geological medium and ecological conditions, Troodos found rich flora which comprises a large number of endemic plants. Dominant feature of vegetation are extensive stands of pine (Pinus brutia). At altitudes above 600 m. And mainly rocky slopes also formed dense scrub (maquis) endemic golden oak (Quercus alnifolia). Other trees and shrubs encountered often in Troodos are:

  • the eastern strawberry tree (Arbutus andrachne),
  • cypress (Cupressus sempervirens),
  • or spend (Quercus coccifera ssp. calliprinos),
  • oak (Quercus infectoria),
  • the maple (Acer obtusifolium),
  • the wild olive (Olea europaea var. sylvestris),
  • The hawthorn or hawthorn (Crataegus azarolus, C. monogyna),
  • the sumach (Rhus coriaria) and
  • the wild rose (Rosa canina).
In the highest peaks of Troodos found thickets of black pine (Pinus nigra ssp. Pallasiana), which are accompanied by psychroviotera species such as:

  • the agriomilia or rowan (Sorbus aria),
  • invisible items (Juniperus oxycedrus, J. excelsa, J. foetidissima),
  • endemic wild rose (Rosa chionistrae) and
  • the ververis (Berberis cretica).
Near rivers and in moist places formed riparian Platanos woods (Platanus orientalis) and alder (Alnus orientalis), while hosted and other types demanding to moisture such as the myrtle or myrtle (Myrtus communis), laurel (Laurus nobilis) and Arodafnousa (Nerium oleander).
In a limited area around the top of Tripylos there are clusters of endemic cedar (Cedrus brevifolia), which are remnants of much more extensive forests of antiquity.

The dominant feature of the Troodos fauna is the Cyprus mouflon (Ovis gmelini ophion), whose area of ​​distribution is the Paphos Forest. It is endemic to Cyprus and was in danger of extinction in the 1930s have since taken strict measures to protect and today its population counts about 3000 people. Other species of mammals living in the Troodos mountain range is the fox (Vulpes vulpes), the hare (Lepus europaeus), the hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), and number of small rodents and bats. From reptiles worth mentioning the fine or viper (Macrovipera lebentina) which often nests in the shade of golden oak. Also Troodos hosts rich bird population, from which the klokkaros stand (Corvus corax) and perdikosiachino (Hieraetus fasciatus), the crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), the dentrovatis (Certhia brachydactyla dorotheae), the Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos), and endemic skalifourta (Oenathe cypriaca). In marginal levels has reached the population of pyrochrou vulture (Gyps fulvus), for which it has been designed and implemented protection plan that includes surveillance, monitoring via radio transmitters and feeding birds in specific areas in order to avoid the possibility of poisoning.
Management and Environment Protection
Troodos there are currently the following state forests: Troodos Forest (110 square kilometers), Pafos Forest (700 square kilometers), Forest Brothers, Machairas Forest (60.6 sq km) and Limassol Forest. The state forests are in the jurisdiction of the Department of Forestry of the Republic. Within the limits of the state forest is prohibited by law or any other residential developments, as is intended solely to fulfill forestry purposes. For further protection of biodiversity designated four areas Protection of Flora and Fauna: The top of Tripylos (823 hectares) to protect the cluster of Cyprus cedar and moufflon and the Madari (1187.8 hectares), Blacks in creams Paphos forest (2557.6 hectares) and an area of ​​220 hectares forest Troodos for protection of rare or endangered plants and their habitats. Also most of the Troodos Forest (about 90 sq. Km) has been declared a national park, whose main function recreation public.
In case you haven't seen Troodos, now it would be an excellent time to do so!
Start Point: On the main Troodos square road - Baptist above the water reservoir Baptist.
End Point: For the ending of the route there are two alternatives at different points in the dirt Pedoulas - Agios Nikolaos.
Estimated Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes - 2 hours
Difficulty Rate: Category 3: High degree of difficulty trail Route with difficult terrain such as very steep gradient (uphill and / or downhill), course in particularly rough and / or slippery, and / or steep terrain. Not suitable for young children.
Trip Length: First option: 4.5 km - Second option: 4.5 km


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